His rule of the vast region was based on tyranny and terror. Native peoples were forced to gather ivory and transport it for export. Because he was black, his statement and character were easily attacked by Leopold. Similarly, the agents at the Congo ivory stations were white and often disreputable or powerless at home but found themselves getting rich and exercising complete control of the natives in Africa.
Though thousands of Westerners visited the Congo in the s and 90s, only a handful spoke out about the atrocities they witnessed there. He wrote and published the Open Letter to Leopold that was reprinted around the world and widely read by all the reformers.
He once told a reporter: European slavery in its colonies was violent to the extreme and based on racism. A photo of Rom standing on a dead elephant holding his rifle triumphantly sends the message of the macho power these Europeans felt in Africa.
Hochschild makes clear, however, that African slavery practiced on its own people was relatively benign, limited, and part of a cultural system. He wanted a colony to compete with other European countries. First, which people from the era of the Belgian occupation had the luxury of writing down their accounts of what happened… Cite This Page Choose citation style: By the s, most African coastal regions were claimed as colonies of European powers, but the vast interior of the continent remained unknown to Europeans.
He also ordered his Belgian administrators in the Congo to enslave African people, first as ivory hunters and porters, and later as rubber harvesters. Because he was a black missionary another outspoken white missionary was excusedSheppard was persecuted and put on trial for speaking out, barely escaping with his life.
And just as under Leopold, billions of dollars worth of Congolese metal and rubber continue to flow out of the country and into the pockets of Western businesses. Many of the most powerful people in the Western world believed that the native peoples of Africa, Australia, Asia, and the Americas were second-class human beings, or not human beings at all.
Scholarship[ edit ] Hochschild cites the research of several historians, many of them Belgian. Throughout the 19th century, newspaper circulation grew enormously, as did the literacy rate in the Western world.
Finally, inthe Congo gained independence. The documentation was not easy to come by; the furnaces of the palace in Brussels are said to have spent more than a week burning incriminating papers before Leopold turned over his private Congo to the Belgian nation.
Retrieved September 27, Actual change, however, was nearly imperceptible. Jeremy Harding, writing in The New York Timescalled it "a model account" that showed how the human rights abuses and human rights activism that resulted became a "template for modernity".
The Belgian administrators in the Congo continued to use forced African labor to mine for resources, for example. Hamilton, writing in The Washington Postcalled it an excellent book to counteract "the great forgetting" of the Congo atrocities.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Western powers controlled huge territories in Asia, Africa, South America, and Australia, exemplifying a form of statecraft known as imperialism.
A series of militarized outposts were established along the length of the Congo River, and imported paddle wheelers commenced regular river service.
Morel, it seems, took a condescending, paternalistic view of African people, even as he devoted his adult life to protecting them from exploitation. Leopold used his personal control to strip the county of vast amounts of wealth, largely in the form of ivory and rubber. Leopold often complained about being a king in a constitutional monarchy, with limited power.
Stanley turned every one of his expeditions into print and made a fortune, the most famous explorer of his day. The evidence enraged the audiences that Morel spoke to. Other foreign places had been taken, such as India, the Americas, Australia, and Pacific islands.
In many ways the Congo reform movement was a triumph of human rights activism, but in other ways, little has changed in the hundred years since the movement ended.
Meanwhile, early missionaries and human rights advocates such as Roger CasementE. The book includes these photos of children without hands and women chained to each other by the neck, being held hostage as their husbands are forced to fill a rubber quota.
Workers failing to secure assigned quotas of rubber were routinely mutilated or tortured. Morel was not the first to notice the evil in the Congo. The explorers went to remote areas, like astronauts into the unknown, then came back to tell about their adventures in newspapers and books.
While Stanley worked at developing land in the Congo on behalf of Leopold, Leopold continued to offer awards and host benefits for philanthropic causes, ensuring that European elites thought of him favorably.
The explorer, Henry Morton Stanley, was notorious for his racism and announced it openly in his books. At a time when international mass communication was a relatively new invention… Racism and Human Rights The late 19th and early 20th centuries were a time of widespread, normalized racism in Europe and America.This study guide King Leopold's Ghost () is a best-selling popular history book by Adam Hochschild that ultimedescente.com Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.
ADAM HOCHSCHILD is the author of seven books. King Leopold's Ghost was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award, as was his recent To End All Wars.
His Bury the Chains was a finalist for the National Book Award and won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize and PEN USA Literary Award. He lives in Berkeley, California/5(). King Leopold’s Ghost isn’t just a work of history; it’s a meditation on historiography, the study of how primary sources are interpreted, reinterpreted, and shaped into a supposedly “true” version of the past.
In the course of examining the history of the Belgian occupation of the Congo, Hochschild asks a series of important questions. Although much of the material in "King Leopold's Ghost" is secondhand -- the author has drawn heavily from Jules Marchal's scholarly four-volume history of turn-of-the-century Congo and from "The.
The country’s Royal Museum for Central Africa, founded by Leopold II, mounted a special exhibition in about the colonial Congo; in an article in the New York Review of Books, Hochschild accused the museum of distortion and evasion.
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